Coetzee, J H; Dippenaar-Schoeman, A S; Van den Berg, A.
Spider assemblages on five species of proteaceous plants in the fynbos biome of South Africa.
Phytophylactica, v.22, n.4, 1990:443-448
Abstract: Between the first week of January 1985 and the first week of
December 1985 monthly collections of spiders (Araneae) were made on five
Proteaceae species in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Thirty-five genera
representing 15 spiders families were recorded. Of the total number (837) of
spider individuals collected, 37,2% belonged to the Salticidae, 22,6% to the
Clubionidae, 9,1% to the Theridiidae, 8,2% to the Araneidae and 7,0% to the
Philodromidae. Sixty-one spiders were collected from the inflorescences. The
same spider families were present on the five plant species, but differences
were found in the number of spiders collected on the different plant species.
[The 5 Proteacese species were the following: Protea cynaroides P. neriifolia,
P. repens Leucospermum cordifolium and Leucadendron laureolium].

Wright, M G; Giliomee, J H.
Guild composition and seasonal distribution of insects on Protea magnifica and Protea laurifolia (Proteaceae).
South African Journal of Zoology, v.25, n.4, 1990:245-249
Abstract: Insects were collected over a period of 12 months from Protea
magnifica and P. laurifolia by beating. Analysis of guild composition showed
remarkable uniformity in proportion of species in different guilds on the two
plants. Proportions of individuals in different guilds were not uniform, owing
to a larger proportion of phytophages being collected on P. magnifica. A
distinct seasonal distribution in insect numbers was observed in out of six
study sites, with peak numbers being collected in summer.

Botha, S A; Le Maitre, D C.
Effects of seed and seedling predation by small mammals on seedling recruitment of Protea neriifolia in Swartboskloof, Cape Province.
South African Journal of Zoology, v.27, n.2, 1992:60-69
Abstract: Seed and seedling predation by small mammals, thought to be
significant factors controlling the recruitment of Proteaceae in fynbos
shrublands, were studied in a fynbos shrubland before and after a fire in
March 1987. Seeds of Protea neriifolia R.Br. were planted inside and outside
14 mm mesh exclosures. The abundance of small mammals was recorded at two
fynbos and five forest sites before the fire and at an additional forest and
fynbos site after the fire. Seed predation reduced seedling recruitment from
seeds planted in March 1986 in mature fynbos, but the reduction was
significant only at the site with the highest abundance of small mammals. Seed
predation did not significantly reduce seedling recruitment from seed planted
in July, August and September 1986 in mature fynbos. The primary cause of
seedling mortality before the fire was wilting, presumably owing to moisture
stress. After the fire small mammal abundance decreased in burn fynbos and
increased in unburnt forest refuges until eight months after the fire when it
increased again in the fynbos to a maximum of 41 animals per 100 trapnights
two years after the fire. Seedling predation by small mammals had a limited
impact after the fire probably because their numbers dropped soon ater the
fire. The effects of seed predation did not decrease with increasing distance
from a forest refuge. Fungal pathogens and herbivory by insects were the
primary causes of seedling mortality after the fire. Small mammal abundance in
mature fynbos 25-30 years after a fire may have been too low to prevent the
recruitment of a second cohort of P. neriifolia seedlings.

Wright, M G; Giliomee, J H.
Insect herbivory and putative defence mechanisms of Protea magnifica and Protea laurifolia (Proteaceae).
African Journal of Ecology, v.30, n.2, 1992:157-168
Abstract: Herbivorous insects, herbivory levels and possible defence
mechanisms of Protea magnifica Mill and P. laurifolia Thunb. (Proteaceae) were
investigated. Numerous Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and one Orthoptera species
removed up to 14% of leaf area on P. magnifica and up to 7% on P. laurifolia.
Young leaves contained more nitrogen than old leaves but were not attacked,
while older leaves, which were tougher and contained less nitrogen and water,
were eaten. Important herbivores were found to have gut pH levels indicative
of adaptation to a tannin-containing diet. Trichomes on young leaves deterred
insects from feeding on them.

Hara, A H; Hata, T Y.
Ant control of protea in Hawaii.
Scientia Horticulturae (Amsterdam), v.51, n.1-2, 1992:155-163
Abstract: The bait insecticides, hydramethylnon and abamectin, were very
effective against the bigheaded ant, Pheidole megadcephala (F.). Of the 10
attractants tested, the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr), was highly
attracted to honey:water (1:1), while the bigheaded ant was highly attracted
to peanut butter:soybean oil (1:1). Addition of 1% boric acid to honey:water
significantly lowered the attractancy to Argentine ants. One application of
permethrin 3.2 emulsifiable concentrate (EC), chlorpyrifos 50 wettable powder
(WP) and 1.0 microencapsulated, cyfluthrin 20 WP and 2 EC, and fenopropathrin
2.4 EC as a barrier treatment to the tree trunk area reduced Argentine ants
infecting pink frost banksia, Banksia menziesii R. Br., flowers. Sticky bands
were also effective as a barrier treatment against Argentine ants, but
resulted in phytotoxicity to B. menziesii. Chlorpyrifos 50 WP and 4 EC were
phytotoxic tocultivar 'Sunburst' pincushion protea, Leucospermum cordifolium
(Salisb. ex Knight) Fourcade, causing unmarketable flowers with crooked and
short stems. Fenpropathrin 2.4 EC was not phytotoxic to 'Sunburst' protea.

Coetzee, J H; Giliomee, J H.
Borers and other inhabitants of the inflorescences and infructescences of Protea repens in the Western Cape [South Africa].
Phytophylactica, v.19, n.1, 1987:1-6
Abstract: Twenty-five insect species (excluding pollen and nectar feeders) are
associated with Protea repens, inflorescences and infructescences from bud
initiation up to seed dispersal. The species which tunnel in the
inflorescences and infructescences belong to the orders Coleoptera,
Lepidoptera and Diptera. Their larvae cause the young inflorescence buds to
become malformed and during the flowering stage florets are destroyed. The
infructescences are also subjected to seed predation. The borers include
Genuchus hottentottus, Sphenoptera spp., Euderes lineicollis, Cryptolechia
ammopleura, Argyroploce sp., Tinea sp., Bostra conspicualis, Capys alphaeus
and Resseliella proteae. Information on the feeding behavious and seasonal
occurrence of these species is presented briefly.

Coetzee, J H; Giliomee, J H.
Seed predation and survival in the infructescences of Protea repens (Proteaceae).
South African Journal of Botany, v.53, n.1, 1987:61-64
Abstract: The amount of seed damage done by insects in closed infructescences
of Protea repens was recorded in order to establish the period when the
maximum number of viable seeds is present on the plant. The larvae of three
species of Coleoptera and two species of Lepidoptera were responsible for all
the seed damage. There was a linear decrease with time in the percentage of
undamaged seeds. Thirty weeks after flowering 68% of the seed production was
undamaged, but after 102 weeks only 16% of the production remained undamaged.
The highest number of viable seeds was present on plants from January to
March, indicating this to be the most suitable period for controlled burning
of P. repens. The heavy insect predation rate suggested that seed loss is a
significant ecological stress factor in P. repens.

Coetzee, J H; Giliomee, J H.
Insects in association with the inflorescence of Protea repens (Proteaceae) and their role in pollination.
Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, v.48, n.2,:303-314
Abstract: A survey was carried out on insects found in the inflorescences of
Protea repens (L.) L. which flowers between March and July in the Western Cape
[South Africa]. A total of 45 insect species was recorded of which 32 were
Coleoptera. Chirodica spp. (Halticidae) comprised 70% of all the insects
found. Exclusion experiments and scanning electron microscope photographs show
that small beetles are important vectors of protea pollen-a role hitherto
attributed only to birds, rodents and large beetles.

Gagne, R J.
A new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) injurious to Protea flowers in South Africa.
Annals of the Natal Museum, v.25, n.2,:587-589
Abstract: Resseliella proteae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a pest of Protea
flowers in South Africa, is described and illustrated. R. proteae is
occasionally intercepted in cut flowers at USA ports of entry.

Visser, D.; Wright, M. G.; Van den Berg, A.; Giliomee, J. H..
Species richness of arachnids associated with Protea nitida (Proteaceae) in
he Cape fynbos.

African Journal of Ecology, v.37, n.3, Sept., 1999.:334-343.
Abstract: Regular counts of Arachnida on Protea nitida Mill. were made in
three study areas in the western Cape over a period of one year. They were
also investigated in the rest of the natural distribution area of P. nitida in
the southern and western Cape. Collections were made according to three
standardized methods. Five arachnid orders were collected, of which the
Araneae (spiders) were dominant. Thirty-two spider species (653 individuals)
representing 18 families were collected, of which five families and eight
genera (eight species) were recorded for the first time on the Proteaceae in
the Cape fynbos. Four non-Araneae orders were collected. A micro-habitat
preference was observed in some families. Numbers of immature spiders peaked
in autumn. Adults and immatures did not always have the same habitat
distribution and did not always peak during the same season. Families also
showed differences in seasonal abundance. Plant architecture and distribution
influenced the number of species collected. Protea nitida hosted more spider
species than less complex plants with smaller distributions. The implications
of these findings are discussed in terms of biodiversity and invertebrate

Allsopp, M. H.; Nicolson, S. W.; Jackson, S..
Xylose as a nectar sugar: The response of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz (Hymenoptera: Apidae).
African Entomology, v.6, n.2, Sept., 1998.:317-323.
Abstract: The pentose sugar xylose has recently been reported as a major sugar
in the nectar of Protea and Faurea (Proteaceae). Because honeybees are
potentially important pollinators of both Protea and Faurea, we investigated
the responses of Cape honeybees to xylose solutions. Preference tests were
conducted outdoors using a single colony of bees trained to visit feeding
dishes. Sugar solutions (20 or 40 ml, usually 30% w/w) were set out at 13:00,
and the number of bees on each dish was recorded at 15-min intervals. The
tests showed: (1) that pure xylose is unattractive compared to the common
nectar sugars; (2) that bees presented with a range of glucose/xylose mixtures
prefer those with the smallest proportion of xylose; (3) that xylose has a
repellent effect, the bees preferring, for example, 9% glucose to 9% glucose +
21% xylose. During survival tests, 50 or 100 newly-emerged bees were placed in
Liebeveld cages, each with a wax comb and two gravity feeders. Cages were kept
at 30degreeC, and dead bees were removed and counted daily. When bees were fed
sucrose, glucose, fructose and xylose (all 30% w/w) and water only, survival
on xylose was as poor as on water. With different glucose/xylose mixtures,
survival time was inversely related to the proportion of xylose in the diet,
each 5% increment in xylose causing an additional increase in mortality. We
conclude that the xylose in Protea and Faurea nectar is not there for the
benefit of honeybees.

Van Tets, Ian Gerard.
Extraction of nutrients from Protea pollen by African rodents.
Belgian Journal of Zoology, v.127, n.SUPPL., Oct., 1997.:59-65.
Abstract: Many of the species of Protea that are found in the south-western
Cape of South Africa are pollinated by rodents. In Australia, where flowers of
the same family are also mammal-pollinated, some of the mammal species that
feed on Proteaceae flowers not only gain energy from nectar but also extract
protein from pollen. This contrasts with the widely held belief that most
mammals are unable to extract nutrients from pollen. To determine whether
African rodents are also capable of using pollen as a source of protein,
faecal samples were collected from mammals trapped at two sites in the Western
Cape where Protea humiflora and P. subulifolia were common. The mammals
included three rodent species, Rhabdomys pumilio, Aethomys namaquensis and Mus
minutoides, and an elephant shrew, Elephantulus edwardsii. The mean percentage
of empty or partially digested pollen grains was 50.3% for E. edwardsii, 56.8%
for R. pumilio, 60.4% for A. namaquensis and 83.0% for M. minutoides. These
four species are clearly capable of penetrating the pollen grains of Protea
during digestion. Pollen is therefore a potential protein source for these

Coetzee, J. H.; Wright, M. G.; Gilliomee, J. H..
Anti-herbivore mechanisms of economically important Proteaceae species in the African Cape Fynbos.
Journal of Applied Entomology, v.121, n.7, Oct., 1997.:367-372.
Abstract: Five economically important species of the family Proteaceae were
investigated to determine which leaf characteristics possibly contributed to
deterring insect herbivory. The presence of phenolic compounds such as tannins
in the leaves of all five plant species and the ability of these to
precipitate proteins varied between the plant species. The young leaves of
Leucadendron laureolum exhibited a pronounced cyanogenic capacity, while those
of Leucospermum cordifolium and Protea neriifolia were covered by a thick
layer of trichomes. The glabrous young leaves of P. repens and P. cynaroides
were apparently protected by phenolic compounds. The increasingly
sclerophyllous character of ageing proteaceous leaves may afford these leaves
some protection against certain insects. The importance of these findings is
discussed in terms of the development of insect resistant Proteaceae cultivars.

Zachariades, C.; Midgley, J. J..
Extrafloral nectaries of South African Proteaceae attract insects but do not reduce herbivory. African Entomology, v.7, n.1, March, 1999.:67-76.
Abstract: Extrafloral nectaries are present on the leaves of several species
of Proteaceae in the fynbos biome of South Africa, particularly in the genera
Leucadendron R. Br., Leucospermum R. Br. and Mimetes Salisb. Ants
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and other insects have been observed feeding at
these nectaries. The numbers and diversity of insects on the leaves of
Leucospermum conocarpodendron (L.) Buek and Mimetes fimbriifolius Salisb. ex
J. Knight, species with extrafloral nectaries, were significantly higher than
numbers of similar insects on the leaves of two Protea L. species that
occurred in the same area, but which lacked extrafloral nectaries. The
exclusion of ants from branches of Leucadendron laureolum (Lam.) Fourc., L.
conocarpodendron and M. fimbriifolius did not lead to increased levels of
herbivory, as might be expected if these extrafloral nectaries function as
attractants to ant-guards. In view of low ant numbers and levels of herbivory
recorded in this study, we suggest that such a mutualism may still operate
under different ecological conditions to those prevailing in our study.
Alternatively, the nectaries may not reduce herbivory but could serve another
ecological function.

Wright, Mark G.; Samways, Michael J..
Biogeography and species richness of endophagous insects associated with Proteaceae in South Africa.
African Journal of Ecology., v.38, n.1, March, 2000.:16-22.
Abstract: The endophagous insects associated with Proteaceae of the Cape
fynbos were compared to endophage assemblages from more northern non-Capensis
Proteaceae. Insects were collected from Proteaceae in the Cape on a regular
basis and additional records obtained from insect collections. Northern
samples were collected more opportunistically or records were obtained from
collections or through personal communication. The Cape fynbos genus Protea is
utilized by many more insect taxa than the non-fynbos Protea species. The
fynbos Proteaceae has very few species in common with the northern Proteaceae,
yet each has many of their own distinct species. This suggests that the fynbos
endophage insect fauna is distinct from that of the other regions. It appears
that the high diversity of host plants in the fynbos has contributed to
generating high, local endophagous insect diversity.

Wingfield, Brenda D.; Viljoen, Christopher D.; Wingfield, Michael J..
Phylogenetic relationships of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Protea in
ructescences in South Africa.

Mycological Research, v.103, n.12, Dec., 1999.:1616-1620.
Abstract: Five ophiostomatoid taxa have been found associated with the
infructescences of Protea species, an ancient group of flowering plants
endemic to South Africa. Two of these fungi are characterized by their unusual
Knoxdavesia anamorphs and have been placed in Gondwanamyces. The three
remaining species have Sporothrix anamorphs and have accordingly been
accommodated in Ophiostoma. The phylogenetic relationships between the fungi
associated with Protea spp. and other ophiostomatoid fungi in Ceratocystis and
Ophiostoma are unknown. Large subunit ribosomal RNA sequence data was obtained
for the fungi associated with Protea infructescences as well as for the type
species of Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma. Both groups of ophiostomatoid fungi
were phylogenetically distinct from either Ceratocystis or Ophiostoma, despite
sharing morphological and physiological characters with these genera. The
species of Ophiostoma associated with Protea infructescences group within the
Ophiostomatales while species of Gondwanamyces group within the Microascales.
Furthermore, the Ophiostoma spp. from Protea should reside in a separate genus
and are a fascinating example of convergent evolution towards insect dispersal.

Wright, Mark G.; Samways, Michael J..
Plant characteristics determine insect borer assemblages on Protea species in the Cape Fynbos, and
importance for conservation management.

Biodiversity and Conservation, v.8, n.8, Aug., 1999.:1089-1100.
Abstract: The influence of regional climate, biotope and host-plant variables
on the frequency of occurrence of insect borers associated with
infructescences of Protea species in the species-rich flora of the Cape Fynbos
was investigated. Large samples of infructescences (n = 1000) were collected
on a seasonal basis and borers identified and quantified. Data were analysed
using DECORANA and CANOCO so as to correlate environmental variables with
borer occurrence. Distinct differences in frequency of occurrence of the
various insect taxa were recorded on the various plant species studied. These
differences were primarily accounted for by physical host-plant
characteristics (infructescence and seed set variables), and secondarily, by
biotope variables and climatic factors. Fynbos plant characteristics therefore
play a major role in determining insect abundance. Plant diversity in the
Fynbos is maintained by burning. These management burns, however, should not
be applied too frequently or over areas large enough to extirpate any borer
species. As these borers are excellent umbrellas for many other insects, their
conservation covers Fynbos insect diversity in general.

Hara, A. H.; Tenbrink, V. L.; Hu, B.k. S.; Hata, T. Y.. Postharvest
treatments against thrips in pincushion protea,
1996. Entomological Society of
America 9301 Annapolis Road, Lanham, Maryland 20706, USA 1997.. ;Saxena, C. R.
Author. Arthropod Management Tests.:399-400.
Series: Arthropod Management Tests 22
Language: English; Pub type: BOOK